Day 3 :
- Track 5: Advanced Developments and Current Research in Traditional Medicine
Location: Conference Hall 03
Nihon University, Japan
Adrian Angel Inchauspe
National University of La Plata, Argentina
Nihon University, Japan
Title: Induction of neurogenesis by extracts of 57 plant species used in Myanmar traditional medicine in PC12 cells
Time : 09:10-09:35
Atsuyoshi Nishina has completed his PhD from Meiji University. He is the Professor of College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Japan. He has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals.
While study of western drugs leading to dementia or depression has been conducted, many trials to prevent such diseases by herbal medicines have been also done. For instance, effects of ginkgo components or Yokukansan for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, or effect of Chinese herbal medicines for depression have been reported. Herbal medicines are different from western medicines, because they can be prophylactically used by taking from healthy state in some cases. We focused on biological resources of Myanmar, where democratization has been advanced and accepts foreigners freely. In Myanmar, original traditional medicines have been used rather than Western medicines. Because the country was being isolated for a long term, constituents of Myanmar tradition medicines is uncertain. In the present study, we aimed to introduce new lead compounds for dementia or depression drugs by measuring effects of constituents of Myanmar tradition medicines in a neural model. Among 171 kind of extracts, methanol extract of Croton tiglium L. induced phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 as well as NGF, used as the positive reference compound while IC50 of cytotoxicity was >100 μg/mL. Not only ERK 1/2 but also JNK and p38 MAPK were phosphorylated by methanol extractof C. tiglium. Remarkable neurite outgrowth and expressions of Neurofilament-M were observed by addition of C. tiglium methanol extract at 10, 30, and 100 μg/mL for the medium of PC12 cells. Neurite outgrowth and phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 were down-regulated by addition of inhibitor of MEK (U0126), JNK, or p38MAPK whereas, neurite outgrowth and expressions of Neurofilament-M by NGF was inhibited only by U0126.
Adrian Angel Inchauspe was certified as laparoscopic surgeon in La Plata, Buenos Aires, Aachen, Tubingen and Strasbourg Universities. Currently, he serves as Editorial Member and Reviewer in many foreign renowned journals. He participated as Chairman in several International Drug Discovery Congresses and in the 2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional Medicine-2014 in Beijing, where he proposed the foundation of the World Union of Traditional Medicines. Since 2005, he serves as teacher in the Argentina Acupuncture Society and published his “Systematized Integration of Acupunctural Therapeutic Knowledge” book in 2014. He has been searching about Yongquan resuscitation in the last 28 years.
In the previous edition of the Traditional Medicine Conference held at Beijing, the actual possibility of the so called Five-Element Theory had, in fact, a precise foundation–which finds support in accurate propositions stated long ago by Alexandrian Greek Mathematician Euclid–was presented. Such assumptions may be said to derive from the most ancient formal science known to human beings: Geometry. In this opportunity, the latest advances of research in this specific field shall be presented by the author. These seem to verify that Chinese pentatonic music is not only related to the Five Movements but also that it finds a precise explanation in the Cylce of Fifhts proposed by the Mathematics genius Pythagoras. This new method, called Therapeutic Acupunctural Resonance calls upon both the Greek Mathematic hypotheses as well as upon principles derived from Chinese Medicine coinciding with Morphic Resonance, a concept first introduced by Prof. Rupert Shedrake in the early 1990s. The author shall also confront his work with several Chinese lines of research which deal with the propagated sensation (T´chi phenomenon) along meridians – such peculiar combination of both Oriental and Occidental knowledge – to which certain results he had can actually be assigned.
Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, South Korea
Time : 10:00-10:25
Chang Jin Jung has completed his MSE from Kyung Hee University in South Korea. He is the Senior Researcher in Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine. He has published several papers for tongue diagnosis.
Atongue provides direct evidence for diagnosing one’s health condition based on its visual information, and it has been frequently used in Traditional East Asian Medicine clinics (TEAM). In particular, TEAM posits that the colour of tongue is highly related with digestive functions. In this study, the colour of tongue between the chronic dyspepsia patients and controlled healthy subjects were analyzed. The chronic dyspepsia patients with functional dyspepsia (n=23), gastroesophageal reflux disease (n=13), and gastritis (n=22) were recruited, and healthy subjects (n=11) were participated. Tongue images in profile view were acquired by using computerized tongue image acquisition system. The colours of the tongue body were extracted from the region in profile view of the tongue, where there was no coating. Colour differences in CIE L*a*b* colour space between the three sub-types of chronic dyspepsia patients and the healthy subjects were analyzes respectively by using multiple linear regression analysis with the factors groups, age, and sex. The variable b* was significantly lower in gastroesophageal reflux disease than that in healthy subjects (p=0.017). The variable a* was significantly lower in gastritis than that in healthy subjects (p=0.03). There was no significant difference between functional dyspepsia and healthy subjects. In gastroesophageal reflux disease, the colour of the tongue body seems to be changed to pale red colour. In gastritis, the colour of the tongue body seems to be changed to intense red colour. It is expected that the colour of the tongue body can be used for diagnosing digestive functions in healthcare.
Harvard Medical School, USA
Title: Stress, fight or flight? Towards a new understanding of mental illness, PVNC rh mechanism in stress regulation
Time : 10:45-11:10
Rong Zhang has completed her PhD at Kyushu University in Japan and postdoctoral studies from University of Cincinnati in USA. She was an Associate Professor at Fudan University in China and She is a Faculty at Harvard Medical School and Children’s Hospital Boston. She has published more than 20 original research articles in peer-reviewed journals including Science, PNAS and Journal of Neuroscience. She regularly provides her professional opinions and reviews for some scientific Journals. She has won several awards or her academic achievement from China, Japan and USA.
Stress is anything in the external world that knocks you out of homeostatic balance. Chronic is the key word and stress hormones secreted into the brain can actually make you think more clearly over the short term. The student cramming for a final examinitially benefits from increasing oxygen delivery and nutrients to the brain. But by the six hours mark that student would be thinking less clearly, the neurons not working as well and the capacity for memory retrieval fading. Modern-day humans undergo chronic stress, for instance when they are stuck in traffic, when they are worried about paying the mortgage. These chronic stressors lead toillnesses such as anxiety, depression, ulcers, and heart disease. Fight or Flight, will bethe choices that our bodies react to stressful events. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system is the major pathway in the mediation of the stress response. The hypothalamus releases corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh) in response to stress, Crh acts on the pituitary gland, triggering the release of adreno-corticotropin (ACTH) into the bloodstream, which subsequently causes the hormonal end-product of the HPA-axis, corticosteroid release from the adrenal cortex. Crh-expressing neurons are mainly located in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) and amygdala. The role of PVNCrh in HPA axis regulation is indisputable, however, due to the lack of proper animal model, the role of PVNCrh inanxiety behavior regulation remains largely unknown. Our lab has successfully generated the Crhflox mice in which Crh exon 2 was chosen as the targeted exon because its removal would lead to excision of the entire coding region. Crhfl/fl mice were crossed with Sim1-Cre mice to delete the Crh mainly in PVN (PVNCrhKO). Mice with specific deletion of Crh from PVN have normal grown in terms of bodyweight, food intake and behaviors that were screened by Shirpa test.
Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, China
Time : 11:10-11:35
Zhao Dandan, MD, PhD is a Research Associate at Diabetes Research Center, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China. The main researches include prevention and control of diabetes and its complications with traditional Chinese medicine based on Zang fu visceral-related theory. She has published about 20 papers, and was involved in edition of several books. She has participated in several research projects.
Given the substantial morbidity and mortality associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and the fact that increasingly more people are suffering from T2DM and the associated disorders, there is greater pressure on clinical physicians and basic researchers seeking ways to prevent and treat T2DM, in which traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a crucial role. Professor Sihua Gao’s diabetes research group have engaged in exploring pathogenesis, pattern differentiation, treating principles and methods of using TCM to treat T2DM, and lots of clinical experiences have been accumulated. As for the mechanism of diabetes in TCM, combination of internal and external pathogens is considered to be the reason for onset of T2DM, including poor innate essences, improper diet, unsuitable labor and rest, disordered seven emotion, and six external pathogens that induce kidney essence deficiency, liver qi stagnation, and impaired spleen and stomach function. Thus, we proposed a novel treating method for T2DM, which is characterized by regulating the function of liver, spleen and kidney, together with paying attention to treat the accompanying syndromes, whose rationality and safety were confirmed by the clinical trials, and the mechanism has been explained and verified in the recorded documents. Here, the basic theory, the scientific basis, the characteristics and the advantages of this method are fully discussed and analyzed. This novel idea of treating T2DM not only accords with two main features of Chinese medicine theory, holistic concept and syndrome differentiation, but also bases on understanding of diabetes from modern medicine perspective. This idea integrates Chinese medicine with modern medicine, enriches scientific basis of TCM, offer novel insights into understanding the mechanism, diagnosis, prevention and treatment as well as development of effective drugs for T2DM.
University of Madras, India
Title: Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract: A siddha medicine with potent therapeutic effect in murine experimental mammary carcinoma
Time : 11:35-12:00
Shanthi P has completed her MBBS and MD (Pathology) from the renowned Christian Medical College, Vellore and PhD from University of Madras. She has 33 years of teaching and research experience. She has guided a number of PhD students and MD students and published 103 research papers in peer reviewed journals. She has been the recipient of the prestigious ICRETT fellowship award of the UICC Geneva and the Academic Exchange fellowship of the Association of Commonwealth Universities. She has presented papers in various international/national conferences. Currently, she is the Director of University of Madras, Taramani Campus and Professor & Head, Department of Pathology of the same institute.
The siddha system of medicine is one of the oldest traditional systems of medicine, generated from Dravidian culture in Southern India. It is perhaps the foremost of all medical systems in the world and its definition is the conquest of death: “that which ensures prevention against mortality”. Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Anacardiacae) commonly known as “marking nut” has high priority of use in the indigenous systems of medicine against various ailments. TLC, HPLC and HPTLC analyses have confirmed the presence of trihydroxyflavone, semecarpol, anacardoside and bhilawanols as chief constituents in the drug. Toxicity studies have revealed that the drug is non-toxic. With an increase in breast cancer incidences in India there is a surge in the screening of effective herbal drugs with minimal side effects. We have demonstrated the therapeutic effect of the drug SA in a DMBA induced experimental murine mammary carcinoma model as well as mammary carcinoma cell lines In vitro. The drug, by means of its strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti angiogenic, pro-apoptotic and membrane stabilizing properties, has a potent chemotherapeutic effect. SA restored deranged energy metabolism (to normal) in rats with mammary cancer and suppressed the expression of proteases, glycohydrolases, hypoxic and angiogenic factors. SA was also demonstrated to exhibit an immunomodulatory effect. This drug modulated the O glycosylation of mucin and down regulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases, thereby preventing metastasis of cancer. Thus SA holds much promise as a therapeutic agent in breast cancer. Further evaluation in triple negative breast cancer would be a potential area of research.
University of Haripur, Pakistan
Title: Peganum harmala exhibit potent activity against Acanthamoeba adhesion and cytotoxicity to human corneal epithelial cells in vitro
Time : 12:00-12:25
Abdul Matin has completed his PhD from Birkbeck, University of London and Postdoctoral Fellowship from School of Medicine, Southampton University Hospital, Southampton, United Kingdom. He has long-standing research interests includes the epidemiology and pathogenic mechanism of emerging parasitic diseases with special interest on role of blood-brain barrier in central nervous system infections. Using multi-disciplinary approach he is looking for potential novel synthesized compounds or nanoparticles or/and obtained from plants or insects to discover potential drug candidates for drug delivery system to alleviate the burden of life threatening infections. He was honored with a specialty award and prize titled “The Best Researcher in the UK” by Medical Research Society (MRS), one of the most prestigious research societies in the country; for his outstanding contribution in human brain research in 2007 at Royal College of Physicians, London, UK. He is currently Associate Professor and Head of Medical Lab Technology & Public Health Departments at University of Haripur, Pakistan. He has published more than 25 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member and reviewer of reputed journals.
Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan pathogen and ubiquitous in nature. It plays a pivotal role in ecosystem and recognized to cause blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis involving the central nervous system with a very poor prognosis. This is due to limited availability of effective anti-Acanthamoeba drugs. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of plant extracts derived by various methods (ethanol, methanol, acetone and aqueous) on Acanthamoeba binding and its cytotoxic effect on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HCEC) In vitro. Using HCEC it was observed that Acanthamoeba (T4 genotype) exhibited binding (>85%) and cytotoxicity (>70%) to host cells. However, plant extracts remarkably inhibited more than 70% and 60% of Acanthamoeba binding and cytotoxicity to HCEC respectively. It is worth mentioning that methanolic extract showed maximum activity as compared to other extracts. It was further confirmed that extracts (ranging from 0.1 to 1.5mg/ml) exhibited amoebicidal effects, i.e. >50% of trophozoites were killed at maximum dose (1.5mg/ml) within one hour incubation. However the residual subpopulation remained static over longer incubations. Furthermore growth assay demonstrated crude extracts inhibited >50% Acanthamoeba numbers up to seven days. Our results confirmed that plant extracts has inhibitory effects on Acanthamoeba growth and viability. Overall, these findings revealed that tested plant extracts is inhibitory to Acanthamoeba properties associated with pathogenesis. To the best of our knowledge, our findings demonstrated for the first time that selected plant crude extracts exhibits inhibitory effects on biological properties of Acanthamoeba without any toxic effects on HCEC cells In vitro.
- Track 6: Arabic Medicine and Hijama Cupping Therapy, Track 7: Ayurveda-The Science of Eight Components & Track 8: Traditional Chinese Medicine & Unani Medicine
Location: Conference Hall 03
Islamic Institute of Dua & Dawa, India
Zoheir A Damanhouri
King Abdulaziz University, KSA
Nouran A Aleyeidi completed the Saudi Board of Community Medicine. She has a publication on wet-cupping and hypertension. She is currently working in the Public Health Administration in the Ministry of Health, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Practitioners who tend to do wet-cupping or “Hijama” to their patients, always be hesitant when they are dealing with anemic patients. Actually, they have a point, because wet cupping is a form of blood loss that might seem harmful for some cases. Nevertheless, there are very little researches studying the effect of wet-cupping on blood hemoglobin level. There are a number of case reports, mainly from Korea, of patients who performed wet-cupping and then developed anemia. In the other hand, there was a study done in Iran in 2009 by M. Mahdavi et al. where they performed wet-cupping on 56 healthy adult males, and there where no clinically significant difference between the hemoglobin level before and after the wet-cupping procedure. When we look deeply at those studies we can find some clear differences that most likely can be the reason behind the different effects on hemoglobin levels. Still we need more research in that area and we encourage all researchers who are doing or will do a research on wet-cupping to measure the CBC of their participants before and after the procedure to ensure the safety of their participants, and give us a better understanding of this possible side effect.
Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria
Title: Anti-secretory and anti-ulcerative effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Nigella sativa (L.) seed extract in rats
Time : 13:00-13:25
Adamu Isa Imam has completed his PhD from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. He is currently a Lecturer at the Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria. He has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals.
The present work was carried out to investigate the possible effects of ethyl acetate seed fraction of Nigella sativa on gastric ulcers and basal gastric secretions using the NSAID-induced model. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, glucocinolates amongst others, whereas acute toxicity studies revealed a median lethal dose above 5000 mg/kg. The rats were grouped into 6 (n=5), with the extract fraction administered at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg subcutaneously, followed by pyloric ligation with indomethacin and cimetidine used as the standard drug. For the mucosal integrity study, ulcer and preventive indices were analyzed, while volume of gastric juice, titratable acidity, acid output and pepsin concentration were assessed for basal gastric secretions. The three experimental doses of the extract at 50,100 and 200 mg/kg showed a dose-dependent decrease in both ulcer and preventive indices with the 200 mg/kg dose at 0.6 mm and 94% respectively. It also showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in volume of gastric juice, titratable acidity, acid output and pepsin concentration in dose-dependent manner with the three experimental doses administered with the highest reduction at the 200 mg/kg dose. The results obtained suggest that this fraction down-regulated all those parameters which might be attributed to the presence of the phyto-constituents present in this fraction particularly the flavonoids, possibly through increase mucosal prostaglandin content, inhibition of histidine decarboxylase thereby decreasing histamine secretion and hydrochloric acid. Therefore, the extract fraction of this plant possesses gastro-protective activity further explaining the folkloric use of this plant in the therapy of peptic ulcer disease.
King Abdulaziz University, KSA
Title: Herbal drug interaction and its implication: Inhibitory effect of Nigella sativa on Human CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C9 and CYP3A7
Time : 14:05-14:30
Zoheir A Damanhouri is an Associate Professor of Pharmacology in the Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. He obtained his BSc from Lancaster University (UK), and his MSc and PhD from the University of Wales in 1988. He held various posts in the University as Director of King Fahad Medical Research Centre, Vice-Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, Chairman of the Pharmacology Dept., Dean of Graduate Studies in the University and later as Vice-President for Development from 2007 till 2013. He has over 35 publications in the field of pharmaceutical sciences as well as in Strategic Planning and Postgraduate Studies.
Nigella sativa (N. sativa) (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world especially in Asia, Africa and many Middle Eastern countries. It is considered as one of the greatest forms of healing medicine. Extensive studies on N. sativa seeds have shown its potential pharmacological and therapeutic effects including antidiabetic, antihypertensive, diuretic, digestive, anticancer, antioxidant, analgesic, immunomodulator, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective effects etc. However, there has been much concerned about herbal-drug interactions due to the increasingly reported adverse drug effects and poisoning associated with the use of herbal medicine. The effect of N. sativa extract on hepatic drug metabolism in the rat was investigated in our laboratory. Both in vivo and In vitro experiments were employed to investigate the possibility of induction and inhibition effects on drug metabolism. Acute dosing (0.56 g/Kg) with N. sativa extract to rats caused a significant increase in plasma level of dicoumarol. In vitro studies assessed in 10,000xg liver homogenates from treated animals showed a significant decrease in benzphetamine N-demythelation, dicoumarol oxidation and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation activities compared to liver homogenates from control animals. In addition, N. sativa extracts was tested In vitro for its possible inhibitory effect on cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450 3A4, 3A5, 2C9 and 3A7-mediated metabolism of marker substrates. The present study investigates and throws light on the possible interactions of N. sativa with conventional drugs.
Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Republic of Korea
Time : 14:30-14:55
Jihye Kim has graduated from the College of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University and received a Master´s degree from the Department of Biofuntional Medicine and Diagnostics in 2013. She has joined the Korean Institute of Oriental Medicine as a Researcher in the same year. Her research interest is the prevention and diagnosis of chronic illnease using traditional Korean medicine approach. She has been working as an Expert of ISO/TC249 and the Project Leader of computerized tongue image analysis system.
Chronic Dyspepsia (CD) is one of the most common diseases worldwide. According to the theory of Traditional Medicine (TM), CD appears to have individual differences and therefore it can be subdivided into different pattern identification (PI). CD is mainly considered the Spleen Qi (SQ) deficiency PI. SQ deficiency PI is one of the most common pattern in TM clinics. However, no diagnostic tools such as a questionnaires or medical devices have been validated in clinical studies. This study was performed to determine the reliability and validity of the ‘Spleen Qi Deficiency Questionnaire (SQDQ)’ for the 60 patients with CD. All participants were evaluated by filling in SQDQ and analyzing them. The internal consistency and construct validity of SQDQ were assessed using all the dataset obtained in the current study. The SQDQ showed sufficient internal consistency. Four factors from the SQDQ were extracted through explanatory factor analysis. The percentage of explaiend variance was 65.1%. In the distribution of PI, 68.3% and 31.7% of the participants showed to have SQ and non-SQ groups respectively. The study compared the SQDQ scores between SQ and non-SQ groups. Significant differences in most of SQDQs’ items were observed between the SQ and the non-SQ groups. However, the ‘emaciation’, ‘tongue diagnosis’ and ‘pulse diagnosis’ illustrated no significant differences. The results suggest an alternative diagnostic approach to assess sub-patterns of CD. The proposed diagnostic method will help physicians classify patients into subgroups and the patients would benefit from more precise diagnosis and therapy.
Gomantak Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya & Research Centre, India
Time : 14:55-15:20
Prathamesh V Karpe received a Bachelor’s degree in Ayurveda Medicine & Surgery from Goa University and MS (Shalyatantra) from Maharashtra University of Health Science, Nasik, Maharashtra, India. He is currently practicing Ayurveda in Goa and working as honorary lecturer and consultant at Gomantak Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya & Research centre, Shiroda, Goa, India. He has presented various research papers at Ayurveda seminars in India and abroad.
Ayurveda understands the disease in terms of imbalanced doshas (bodily humors) and treatment aims at removing this unbalanced doshas out of the body and achieving a state of equilibrium in the body. To achieve this various purificatory procedures are told like Vaman (emesis), Virechan (purgation), Basti (medicated enema), Nasya (nasal medication) and Raktamokshana (bloodletting), these 5 procedures are collectively called as Panchakarma procedures. Raktamokshan includes various methods and commonly practiced are Siravedhan (vein-puncturing) and Jalaukavacharan (leech application). Raktamokshan is indicated in disorders of Pitta (fire/bile) and Rakta (blood) involvement, thus non healing wound which has imbalance of Pitta and Rakta can be well managed with Raktamokshana. It helps in preventing venous and capillary stasis and thus helps in proper venous drainage in the area of ulcer and thus improves its healing process. It also drains off excessive inflammatory mediators thus prevents swelling and pain and burning sensation instantly. Acharya Sushruta in Sushruta Samhita mentions specific veins to be punctured in particular diseases. This paper focuses on clinical aspect of Raktamokshana regarding its various techniques and methods and its efficacy in healing wounds.
Dr MGR Medical University, India
Time : 15:40-16:05
Md Obiedullah Baig has completed BUMS from Dr. MGR University, completed Post Graduation MD from Indian Institute of Alternative Medicine & Research Center, and then he completed Post Graduate Diploma in Herbal Bio-Technology in University of Madras. He has been awarded FCIP and he established Dr. Baig’s Unani Herbal Clinic in the year 2000. Since then he has published several research papers, articles in unani medicines & herbal research of various diseases. For the Unani & Herbal Research he got 2 International Awards and 5 National Awards.
Plants have been one of the most important sources of medicines. The screening and isolation of bioactive compounds from plants is increasing, as these compounds are much safer and less toxic than the chemically synthesized drugs. The antibacterial activity of the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia has already been documented. The extract of seeds has shown antibacterial activity against some of the oral bacterial species tested. Hence the study was done to evaluate the antibacterial effect of seeds of Psoralea corylifolia against some of the bacterial pathogens. The aqueous, chloroform and ethanolic extract of seeds of Psoralea corylifolia were tested for their activity against 10 different species. The extract showed activity against Shigella dysenteriae, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhi, Actinomyces viscosus and Vibrio cholerae whereas Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium were inhibited. Antibacterial effect of aqueous & chloroform extract of seeds were higher than the ethanolic extract against Staphylococcus aureus. The chloroform extract showed more inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, when compared to the inhibitory action of the ethanolic and aqueous extract of seeds. The ethanolic extract of seed was more active against Enterococcus faecium. The antimicrobial effect of Psoralea corylifolia seeds may be due to the presence of secondary metabolites. Hence further analysis of the compounds and their testing against micro-organisms would help to develop a new antimicrobial agent that may be of great importance.
Z V M Unani Medical College & Hospital, India
Time : 16:05-16:30
Ghazala Javed Mulla has completed her post graduation from University of Pune. She is the Head of the Department of Physiology at Z V M Unani Medical College, Maharashtra, India. She is teaching Physiology subject to under graduate students for last 16 years and Medical Genetics to post graduate students. She has three ongoing research projects to her credit sponsored by different Governmental agencies. She has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of repute. She has presented research paper at various international conferences in countries like Istanbul, Sri Lanka, Abu Dhabi and in India. She is the first author in India who wrote a book on cupping therapy.
Human classification or race can be described as a group of people who share similar and distinct physical characteristics. It is a social concept by which one group of human beings identifies and distinguish themselves from other group. The term race was initially confined to groups of people speaking common language later the term referred to national association. By 17th Century race is refer to physical (Phenotypical) traits. In Unani System of Medicine, ancient hakeems have identified ten phenotypic features and called them Ajnas-e-Ashra. Based on these features they classified human being into four groups viz., Damwi Mizaj, Balghami Mizaj, Safrawi Mizaj and Saudawi Mizaj. American psychologist William Sheldon (1898-1977) has also classified human beings into three types of personalities and termed them somatotypes. Sheldon’s somatotypes are also based on physical characteristics or physique. He has expressed them numerically and named them endomorphs, mesomorphs and ectomorphs. Sheldon’s body types can be assessed by ten anthropometric measurements. A pilot study has been conducted to explore the different Mizaj types and Somatotypes of the same subjects and to find out any relationship between these two methodologies and to point whether this relationship is merely a coincidence or a statistical correlation.